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 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING

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eve annex satan
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PostSubject: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Tue Mar 10, 2009 11:43 pm

THE TIBETAN UPRISING

The 1959 Tibetan uprising, or 1959 Tibetan Rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when an anti-Chinese and anti-Communist revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, which had been under the reign of the Communist Party of China since the Invasion of Tibet in 1950. Although the 14th Dalai Lama's flight occurred in 1959, armed conflict between Tibetan rebellion forces and the Chinese army started in 1956 in the Kham and Amdo regions, which were subjected to socialist reform. The guerrilla warfare later spread to other areas of Tibet and lasted through 1962.

The anniversary of the uprising is observed by many Tibetan independence groups as Tibetan Uprising Day or Tibetan National Uprising Day.
In 1951, a seventeen point agreement with the People's Republic of China was put into effect. Socialist reforms such as redistribution of land were delayed in Tibet proper. However, eastern Kham and Amdo (western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces in the Chinese administrative hierarchy) were outside the administration of the Tibetan government in Lhasa, and were thus treated more like other Chinese provinces, with land redistribution implemented in full -- a peculiar idea given that the Khampas and nomads of Amdo traditionally owned their own land. Armed resistance broke out in Amdo and eastern Kham in June 1956.

By 1957, Kham was in chaos. PLA reprisals against Khampa resistance fighters such as the Chushi Gangdruk became increasingly brutal. Reportedly, they included beatings, starving prisoners, and the rape of prisoners' wives in front of them until they confessed. Monks and nuns were forced to have sex with each other and forcibly renounce their celibacy vows. After torture, these men and women were often killed. By the late 1950s, the number of Tibetan freedom fighters numbered in the tens of thousands. Kham's monastic networks came to be used by guerilla forces to relay messages and hide rebels. Punitive strikes were carried out by the Chinese government against Tibetan villages and monasteries. Tibetan exiles claim that threats to bomb the Potala Palace and the Dalai Lama were made by Chinese military commanders in an attempt to intimidate the guerrilla forces into submission.

Lhasa continued to abide by the seventeen point agreement and sent a delegation to Kham to quell the rebellion. After speaking with the rebel leaders, the delegation instead joined the rebellion. Kham leaders contacted the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), but the CIA under President Dwight D. Eisenhower required an official request from Lhasa to support the rebels. Lhasa did not act. Finally, the CIA began to provide covert support for the rebellion, without word from Lhasa. By then the rebellion had spread to Lhasa which had filled with refugees from Amdo and Kham. Opposition to the Chinese presence in Tibet grew within the city of Lhasa.

On March 1, 1959, an unusual invitation to attend a theatrical performance at the Chinese military headquarters outside Lhasa was extended to the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama--at the time studying for his lharampa geshe degree--initially postponed the meeting, but the date was eventually set for March 10. On March 9, the head of the Dalai Lama's bodyguard was visited by Chinese army officers. The officers insisted that the Dalai Lama would not be accompanied by his traditional armed escort to the performance, and that no public ceremony for the Dalai Lama's procession from the palace to the camp should take place, counter to tradition.

According to historian Tsering Shakya, some Tibetan government officials feared that plans were being laid for a Chinese abduction of the Dalai Lama, and spread word to that effect amongst the inhabitants of Lhasa. On March 10, an estimated 300,000 Tibetans surrounded the Dalai Lama's palace to prevent him from leaving or being removed. This marked the beginning of the uprising in Lhasa, though Chinese forces had skirmished with guerrillas outside the city in December of the previous year. The Chinese government has claimed that the revolt was initiated by the "Dalai clique". On that day, according to China Daily, a senior lama, Pagbalha Soinam Gyamco, who worked with the PRC as a member of the Preparatory Committee of the Tibetan Autonomous Region, was killed and his body was dragged by a horse in front of the crowd for two kilometers.

On March 12, protesters appeared in the streets of Lhasa declaring Tibet's independence. Barricades went up on the streets of Lhasa, and Chinese and Tibetan forces began to fortify positions within and around Lhasa in preparation for conflict. A petition of support for the armed rebels outside the city was taken up, and an appeal for assistance was made to the Indian consul.

Chinese and Tibetan troops continued moving into position over the next several days, with Chinese artillery pieces being deployed within range of the Dalai Lama's summer palace, the Norbulingka. On March 15, preparations for the Dalai Lama's evacuation from the city were set in motion, with Tibetan troops being employed to secure an escape route from Lhasa. On March 17, two artillery shells landed near the Dalai Lama's palace, triggering his flight into exile.

Open conflict began on the night of March 19, including the shelling of the Norbulingka and Lhasa's major monasteries. Combat lasted only about two days, with Tibetan forces being badly outnumbered and poorly armed.

According to the Tibetan Government in Exile and captured Chinese documents an estimated 86,000 Tibetans died in the events surrounding the 1959 uprising. The Norbulingka was struck with an estimated 800 shells, killing an unknown number of Tibetans within and camped around the palace. Lhasa's three major monasteries- Sera, Ganden, and Drepung- were seriously damaged by shelling, with Sera and Drepung being damaged nearly beyond repair. Members of the Dalai Lama's bodyguard remaining in Lhasa were disarmed and publicly executed, along with Tibetans found to be harboring weapons in their homes. Thousands of Tibetan monks were executed or arrested, and monasteries and temples around the city were looted or destroyed.

The CIA officer, Bruce Walker, who oversaw the operations of CIA trained Tibetan agents, was troubled by the hostility from the Tibetans towards his agents: “the radio teams were experiencing major resistance from the population inside Tibet.” The CIA trained Tibetans from 1957 to 1972, in the United States, and parachuted them back into Tibet to organize rebellions against the PLA. In one incident, one agent was immediately reported by his own brother and all three agents in the team were arrested. They were not mistreated. After less than a month of propaganda sessions they were escorted to the Indian border and released.

In April 1959, the 19 year old 10th Panchen Lama, the second ranking spiritual leader in Tibet, residing in Shigatse, called on Tibetans to support the Chinese government. However, after a tour through Tibet, in May 1962, he met Zhou Enlai to discuss a petition he had begun writing at the end of 1961, criticizing the situation in Tibet. The petition was a 70,000 character document that dealt with the brutal suppression of the Tibetan people during and after the Chinese invasion of Tibet. In this document, he criticized the suppression that the Chinese authorities had orchestrated in retaliation for the 1959 Tibetan uprising. But in October 1962, the PRC authorities dealing with the population criticized the petition. Chairman Mao called the petition "... a poisoned arrow shot at the Party by reactionary feudal overlords." In 1967 he was formally arrested and imprisoned. He was released in 1977 and died suddenly after a mysterious illness in 1989.

Chinese authorities have interpreted the uprising as a revolt of the Tibetan elite against Communist reforms that were improving the lot of Tibetan serfs. Tibetan sources, on the other hand, have usually interpreted it as a popular uprising against the alien Chinese presence. Historian Tsering Shakya has argued that it was a popular revolt against both the Chinese and the Lhasa government, which was perceived as failing to protect the authority and safety of the Dalai Lama
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stormgrab
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 4:54 pm

I think the Chinese govt. is too greedy because it is going on conquering places which doesn't belong to it.Such actions cause unrest in the world and hostilities among nations.I think the UN should do something about it otherwise reasons such as these and many others may lead to a third world war.
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 5:55 pm

there is no way the UN can do anything abiut this issue. The Security Council is the only UN organ ehich can order action agianst a country. If an order is to be passed it must be approved by the five permanent members of which China is one of them. So each the SC takes up the issue the resolutions are vetoed upon by the Chinese.
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 6:22 pm

You are right but what if the other countries of the UN get together and plan to kick China??There sure is a provision to do that...
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 6:57 pm

to kick a nation out u need the UNSC permission. and dat needs chinas vote. the permanent members may only leave on their free will.
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 7:15 pm

Then does that mean the permanent members can be aggressive as long as they like?
Doesn't that show the inefficiency of the UN?
Don't you think it would me another failure like the league?
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 7:19 pm

dats a question people have been askin for ages.
thru out the cold war the UNSC war was virtually dead as resolution was either vetoed by the USA or the USSR.
why do u think da un was ineffective whenthe americans went to vietnam and iraq
or the soviets went into afghanistan or geprgia.

UN reform is the need of the hour my friend.
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 7:25 pm

You are right but a perfect solution can never be invented.There are always faults in any system.
But the UN provision makers were either retarded or were out of their minds to include a veto system.
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 8:09 pm

the framework of the UN was established by these permanent members at the Yalta conference.
The expulsion of the Soviet Union from the League of Nations was one of the causes of World War 2.
The veto power was given with the intention that these were the most responsible nations in the world at that time and would use it jusiciously with the welfare of the whole world in mind. But now people think that they r no longer as powerful as they used to be and it should be withdrawn as they havent really managed to bring about ceasefire in places where they were involved. The jewish lobby in the US is strong that the SC has never passed a resolution condenming the atrocities and actions of Isreal.
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 10:47 pm

I agree with your arguments.But can you suggest a solution for this problem?
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 11:03 pm

well the chinese and the tibetans should learn to live together and through mutual cooperation and tolerance we can definitely have a peaceful and happy tibet if not a free tibet
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PostSubject: Re: 50th ANNIVERSARY of the TIBETAN UPRISING   Wed Mar 11, 2009 11:22 pm

But thats the tough part.The Chinese are communists while the Tibetans are peace loving monks(at least most of them). And by the way the Chinese are imposing themselves on the Tibetans and exploiting them so it would be tough for the Tibetans to pair up with the Chinese even if they want to.
Dont you think now China has Tibet in its pockets,has made Nepal a Maoist country,don't you think its next target would be India?
It is already helping the terrorists of Pakistan and Kashmir with weapons so don't you think its about time for another Indo-Pak War??
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